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Currently accepted at: JMIR Mental Health

Date Submitted: Jan 9, 2018
Open Peer Review Period: Jan 9, 2018 - Feb 1, 2018
Date Accepted: Mar 19, 2018
(closed for review but you can still tweet)

This paper has been accepted and is currently in production.

It will appear shortly on 10.2196/mental.9802

The final accepted version (not copyedited yet) is in this tab.

The final, peer-reviewed published version of this preprint can be found here:

Temporal Associations Between Social Activity and Mood, Fatigue, and Pain in Older Adults With HIV: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

Paolillo EW, Tang B, Depp CA, Rooney AS, Vaida F, Kaufmann CN, Mausbach BT, Moore DJ, Moore RC

Temporal Associations Between Social Activity and Mood, Fatigue, and Pain in Older Adults With HIV: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

JMIR Ment Health 2018;5(2):e38

DOI: 10.2196/mental.9802

PMID: 29759960

PMCID: 5972192

Temporal Associations Between Social Activity and Mood, Fatigue, and Pain in Older Adults With HIV: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

  • Emily W Paolillo; 
  • Bin Tang; 
  • Colin A Depp; 
  • Alexandra S Rooney; 
  • Florin Vaida; 
  • Christopher N Kaufmann; 
  • Brent T Mausbach; 
  • David J Moore; 
  • Raeanne C Moore

ABSTRACT

Background:

Social isolation is associated with an increased risk for mental and physical health problems, especially among older persons living with HIV (PLWH). Thus, there is a need to better understand real-time temporal associations between social activity and mood- and health-related factors in this population to inform possible future interventions.

Objective:

This study aims to examine real-time relationships between social activity and mood, fatigue, and pain in a sample of older PLWH.

Methods:

A total of 20 older PLWH, recruited from the University of California, San Diego HIV Neurobehavioral Research Program in 2016, completed smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) surveys 5 times per day for 1 week. Participants reported their current social activity (alone vs not alone and number of social interactions) and levels of mood (sadness, happiness, and stress), fatigue, and pain. Mixed-effects regression models were used to analyze concurrent and lagged associations among social activity, mood, fatigue, and pain.

Results:

Participants (mean age 58.8, SD 4.3 years) reported being alone 63% of the time, on average, (SD 31.5%) during waking hours. Being alone was related to lower concurrent happiness (beta=−.300; 95% CI −.525 to −.079; P=.008). In lagged analyses, social activity predicted higher levels of fatigue later in the day (beta=−1.089; 95% CI −1.780 to −0.396; P=.002), and higher pain levels predicted being alone in the morning with a reduced likelihood of being alone as the day progressed (odds ratio 0.945, 95% CI 0.901-0.992; P=.02).

Conclusions:

The use of EMA elucidated a high rate of time spent alone among older PLWH. Promoting social activity despite the presence of pain or fatigue may improve happiness and psychological well-being in this population.


 Citation

Please cite as:

Paolillo EW, Tang B, Depp CA, Rooney AS, Vaida F, Kaufmann CN, Mausbach BT, Moore DJ, Moore RC

Temporal Associations Between Social Activity and Mood, Fatigue, and Pain in Older Adults With HIV: An Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

JMIR Mental Health. (forthcoming/in press)

DOI: 10.2196/mental.9802

URL: https://preprints.jmir.org/preprint/9802

PMID: 29759960

PMCID: 5972192

© The authors. All rights reserved. This is a privileged document currently under peer-review/community review (or an accepted/rejected manuscript). Authors have provided JMIR Publications with an exclusive license to publish this preprint on it's website for review and ahead-of-print citation purposes only. While the final peer-reviewed paper may be licensed under a cc-by license on publication, at this stage authors and publisher expressively prohibit redistribution of this draft paper other than for review purposes.